Protecting participants in research is a shared commitment of organizations, researchers, sponsors, and the public. As the research environment has changed to one dominated by multi-site research, there is a need for a flexible, efficient, and effective system of protections. The concept of the “human research protection program” describes the parts that are involved in protection participants in research, which can involve shared oversight by many different organizations. This presentation will look at opportunities for flexibility in human research protection programs that can facilitate research, including the notion that the resources devoted to the evaluation and management of research should be calibrated appropriately according to the risks posed by the research. In addition, the presentation will briefly consider some changes to the Common Rule and impacts on HRPPs.